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What is activated carbon?

Source: Time:2015-10-27 10:14:46 浏览次数:

Activated carbon is a carbonaceous material by the skin was black, the internal pore structure developed, large surface area, adsorption ability of a class of microcrystalline carbon materials. It is a commonly used adsorbent, catalyst or catalyst carrier, widely used in almost all sectors of the national economy and people's daily lives.

1. Activated Carbon classification - As the raw material sources, manufacturing methods, the appearance of different shapes and applications, no less than 1000 varieties of activated carbon.

1.1 according to sources of raw materials can be divided into wood activated carbon (such as coconut shell activated carbon, apricot shell activated carbon, wood charcoal powder, etc.), mineral raw materials of activated carbon (various coal and oil and processed products made from raw materials of activated carbon), other raw materials Activated carbon is made (eg made of activated carbon waste rubber, waste plastics, etc.).

1.2 according to the manufacturing method can be divided into chemical activated carbon (carbon chemistry)

The carbonaceous feedstock mixed with certain chemicals, heat treatment, preparation of activated carbon method called chemical method. By chemical production of activated carbon, also known as activated carbon or chemical carbon chemistry.

Can be used as chemical chemical method is also called activators, activators zinc chloride, calcium chloride, potassium phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium sulfide, sulfuric acid, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, boric acid, In short many acids, bases, salts can be used as activator, mainly from the activated carbon performance and economy to consider what kind of activator.

 In general, chemical carbon micropores pores times, the hole (ie hole diameter or hole wider than 1.5 nm pores) more developed, mainly used for liquid phase adsorption purification and solvent recovery vapor (steam) adsorption occasions.

    Chemical manufacturing activated carbon due to the addition of chemicals in the manufacturing process that may impact should attach great importance to the issue of trace elements of non-raw materials into the environment, and products.

1.2.2 Physical Activated Carbon

Charcoal as raw material with steam, carbon dioxide, air (mainly oxygen) or mixtures thereof (flue gas) is activated medium, at a high temperature (600 ~ 1000 ℃) preparing activated charcoal method called physical methods. Physical method of manufacturing activated carbon physical law called activated carbon, also known as physical carbon.

Generally physical carbon micropores (pore diameter or pore width of less than 1.5 nm pores) developed, mainly for gas adsorption occasion or small molecule liquid phase adsorption applications.

1.2.3 Chemical - physical or physical - chemical activated carbon

In understanding the physical chemistry of carbon and carbon also should mention chemical - physical or physical - chemical activated carbon. Use of different combinations of different chemical and physical methods of raw materials and the use of pore structure of activated carbon can be regulated, thus preparing many different performance of activated carbon. The chemical - physical or physical - chemical method is a method for the preparation of activated carbon for many years and within countries in the world for quite a long time charcoal workers very concerned.

1.3 by the appearance of shape points

1.3.1 powdered activated carbon

 Typically more than 90% through 80 mesh sieve or particle size less than 0.175mm of powdered activated carbon or powdered activated carbon known as carbon. When using powdered carbon adsorption fast adsorption ability to use fully, etc., but need a proprietary separation process. With the advent of separation technology advances and certain application requirements, powdered charcoal particle size tends to have more and more refined, and some occasions has reached micron or nanometer level.

1.3.2 granular activated carbon

Usually activated carbon particle size greater than 0.175mm called granule activated carbon.

Granule activated carbon is divided into the following types.

1.3.2.1 unshaped granule activated carbon

Unshaped granule activated carbon generally consists of granule-like material through carbonization, activation, and then crushing and screening to the desired particle size is made with powdered activated carbon can also be added to the appropriate binder duly processed.

1.3.2.2 cylindrical activated carbon

Activated carbon, also known as columnar cylindrical carbon, generally by the powder material and a binder by kneading, extrusion and then by carbonization and activation processes is made. You can also use powdered activated carbon plus binder extrusion. There are solid and hollow cylindrical carbon points, hollow cylindrical carbon is an artificial or several regular holes columnar charcoal.

1.3.2.3 spherical activated carbon

Spherical activated carbon name suggests is round spherical activated carbon, its preparation method is similar to the columnar carbon, but the ball successful process. Can also be used by spray granulation liquid carbonaceous feedstock, oxidation, carbonization, activation is made, can also be processed together with powdered activated carbon plus binder into a ball. Spherical activated carbon are also solid and hollow spherical activated carbon of the points.

1.3.3 Other shapes charcoal

 In addition to the powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon into two categories, as well as other shapes, such as activated carbon fiber, activated carbon fiber blanket, activated carbon cloth, honeycomb activated charcoal, activated carbon plate and so on.

1.4 divided by application

 Activated carbon is widely mentioned before used in almost all sectors of the national economy and people's daily lives, and as such, applications are classified according to the activated carbon is very difficult, the problem is that the same kind of activated carbon can be used in a variety of occasions, while some occasions and you can use a variety of activated carbon to achieve the same purpose. People tend to get is by the application of knowledge to the activated carbon, activated carbon before the words so often fuzzy classification method of activated carbon crown given common law ××× also act like charcoal. Such as sugar with activated charcoal, activated carbon injection, MSG activated carbon, activated carbon water purification and so on.

Because of activated carbon adsorption, catalysis and certain chemical reaction performance, but also has a relatively stable physical and chemical. Widely used in almost all sectors of the national economy and people's daily life purposes.

  3.1 Application of activated carbon in the gas (vapor) phase adsorption in

  Activated carbon in the gas (vapor) phase adsorption of large-scale applications are from World War I poison gas protection began. Since then, gradually extended to other areas, summed up its main application is as follows.

3.1.1 Protective toxic or harmful gases

    Respirators, masks and protective clothing is typical of activated carbon applications.

3.1.2 purge gas (steam), refining and separation

    Air purification, air, nitrogen, oxygen adsorption separation and purification; degree of industrial hydrogen pressure swing adsorption separation and purification; solvent recovery; sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in flue gas removal; air conditioning; aerospace work environment and deep-sea submarine gas purification unit inseparable from the activated carbon.

3.2 Application of activated carbon in the liquid phase adsorption

    The earliest application of activated carbon from European sugar refining began. Now the application of activated carbon adsorption of ethylene in the liquid phase throughout many industrial sectors and people's daily lives.

3.2.1 Food Industry Applications

    All sweeteners, spices, edible oil, beverage use activated carbon bleaching refining. So far, this application is still one of the most extensive market activated carbon, particularly industrializing the country and many developing countries.

    3.2.2 Application of the pharmaceutical industry

    All artificial occlusal surface and biopharmaceutical drug substances, especially Western medicine bleaching refining the use of activated carbon. The main role of activated carbon adsorption is to remove impurities, improve the purity and the removal of pyrogenic. This is another one of the majority of markets activated carbon.

3.2.3 activated carbon used in the chemical industry and other industry

    Activated carbon in the petrochemical industry, oil refining, desulphurization, deodorization, the catalyst carrier;-containing inorganic chemicals and pharmaceutical grade purified by refined products; extraction metallurgy industry in particular hydrometallurgy of gold, platinum and other precious metals as well as dyeing industry dyes, mordant and so gradually the use of activated carbon, a new development in recent decades activated carbon market.

3.3 Application of Activated Carbon in Environmental Protection

Activated Carbon applications, from the last century, sixties and seventies environmental protection becoming the largest charcoal consumption, including gas and liquid phase adsorption using activated carbon and environmental protection are often more than 60% of the total amount of the developed countries. Gas deal with environmental protection in a variety of industrial life of the exhaust gas purification and recovery of useful solvents. Environmental Protection liquid drain attached processing is mainly used on people's lives on the water, and industrial wastewater treatment. People in developed countries drinking water, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater basically used include activated carbon treatment, including three purification, activated carbon for water treatment in developed countries account for about 40 to 50% of its total amount. China began to pay attention to environmental issues, expected the near future, in the development of activated carbon to obtain hop in our water.

3.4 Activated Carbon Advances in high-tech areas

Athletics was the last two decades has become the country's high-tech world economic development. The rapid development of science and technology to promote hair high surface area activated carbon, high pore volume, high adsorption capacity, high-performance activated carbon, ultrafine carbon, activated charcoal variety of products emerging. These new lines of activated carbon electrodes in high-tech electronics, new catalysts frustum, power and high energy density materials (such as compressed or liquefied hydrogen, natural gas, etc.) and storage. Electric vehicles, applications and many other fields of environmental protection are often found in the literature, and many have been put on the market. Our workers are also activated carbon unremitting efforts, we have made some breakthroughs can be expected in the new century high-tech fields of the activated carbon in the place.

Production and Manufacturing

Activated carbon is a very good adsorbent, it is the use of charcoal, husk and all kinds of high-quality coal as raw material, through physical and chemical methods for raw material crushing, screening, catalyst activation, rinsing, drying and screening a series from manufacturing processes. It has the dual characteristics of physical adsorption and chemisorption, and can be selectively adsorbed gas and liquid in a variety of substances, in order to achieve the purpose of bleaching refining, purification and other disinfecting deodorant and decontamination. Inspection standards in accordance with China National Standard GB, or in accordance with other national standards, such as: the United States ASTM, Japan JIS, the German DIN standards.

Application of Activated Carbon

Activated carbon is widely used in all aspects of industrial and agricultural production, such as the petrochemical industry, E-deodorizer (refined sweetening), ethylene desalinated water (refined filler), the catalyst carrier (palladium, platinum, rhodium, etc.), water purification and sewage treatment; Power chemical industry and chemical catalyst carrier, gas purification, solvent recovery and oil and other bleaching, refining;; food industry and beverage, wine, liquor and food MSG refining, bleaching; gold industry gold Water Plant treatment and protection industry Preparation and related industries cigarette filters, wooden flooring moisture, smoke flavor, automotive gasoline evaporation pollution control, various impregnating agent solution; extracting, tail was recovered; environmental protection industry sewage treatment, waste gas and harmful gases governance, gas purification Wait. Activated carbon in the future will have excellent prospects for development and broad market.

The use of activated carbon and species

1, two air purification, sewage treatment plant exhaust adsorption 3, 4 beverage treatment, water pretreatment plant

5, 6 pre-treatment of wastewater recycling, biological sewage treatment 7, 8 of toxic wastewater treatment, petrochemical sweetening E

9, 10 solvent recovery, chemical catalyst carrier 11, a canister 12, gold extraction

13, 14 exhaust gas purification chemicals storage, sugar, alcohol, monosodium glutamate medicine, food refining, bleaching

15, ethylene desalinated water filler 16, autocatalysts 17, PTA oxidation unit purge gas

 

Direction and field application of activated carbon products

◎ petrochemical industry

E-deodorizer (refined sweetening) - reminders of the refining unit weight

Ethylene desalinated water (refined filler) - ethylene plant

Catalyst carrier (palladium, platinum, rhodium, etc.) - styrene, continuous reforming unit

Water purification and sewage treatment - depth treatment of Sheung Shui and water

◎ power industry

Water treatment plants and protection - boiler equipment

◎ Chemical Industry

Chemical catalysts and carriers, gas purification, solvent recovery, and oil and other bleaching, refining

◎ food industry

Beverage, wine, liquor and food MSG refining, bleaching

◎ gold industry

Gold extraction - for CIP, heap leach gold extraction process

Last liquid recovery - gold mine waste utilization and environmental protection

◎ environmental protection industry

Governance for sewage treatment, waste gas and harmful gases, gas purification

◎ related industries

Cigarette filters, wooden floor moisture, smoke flavor, automotive gasoline evaporation pollution control, various Baptist

Preparation and other liquid stains.

Activated carbon regeneration of activated carbon products currently in the environmental, industrial and civil aspects have been widely used, and achieved considerable success, but the activated carbon adsorption saturation after being replaced, used units are to be discarded, buried or burned, causing resources waste and pollution of the environment again.

Activated carbon adsorption is a physical process, it can also use the impurity high temperature steam used within the desorption of activated carbon, and to restore the original of the activity, in order to achieve the purpose of re-use, has obvious economic benefits.

Activated carbon regeneration after its use can still be reused and recycled continuously.

 

 

 

 

Physical Characteristics

Activated carbon is a multi-aperture of carbide, a very rich pore structure, good adsorption properties, its membership physical adsorption and chemical adsorption force made its appearance color was black. In addition to its main ingredient carbon, also contains a small amount of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, its structure is similar to a hexagon shape, due to the irregular hexagonal structure, also determine the characteristics of their multi-volume and high surface area per gram of activated carbon has a surface area equivalent to 1,000 square meters as much.
 
History

In the early 20th century as a patent was invented before, there is a documented history of activated carbon with a lot more about the history of the formulation of the charcoal applications.

In 3750 BC, the earliest known use of charcoal Egyptians and Sumerians. 1550 BC, ancient Egypt as described for medical charcoal. Greek physician Hippocrates (460-359 BC) and Pliny epileptic treatment with charcoal and anthrax. 450 BC Phoenician merchant ship, the drinking water is stored in charred wooden bucket, is the history of the 18th century until the sea drinking water storage methods. During the same period, the Hindu religious document also refers to the use of sand and charcoal filter and purify drinking water.

157 years, Claudius medical paper mentions charcoal vegetable and animal origin preparation for the treatment of many diseases. China Ming Li (AD 1518- 1593) compiled the Compendium of Materia Medica of the charcoal used in the treatment of diseases mentioned. In 1773, Scheler through a lot of experiments and found that the adsorption capacity of charcoal can absorb various gases. 1777, reported the ability to adsorb gas and charcoal thermal effects, resulting in "condensed adsorption theory" put forward later.

1785, Scheler studied the adsorption gas charcoal, decolorizing charcoal adsorption capacity from the vapor to a series of organic chemicals and a variety of aqueous solutions, especially production of tartaric commercial applications. This seems to be taking into account the first systematic charcoal adsorption on the liquid phase.

At this time, the sugar industry has been looking for an effective method syrup discoloration. However, wood charcoal is not particularly effectively play this role at this time, probably because the degree of porosity development has not yet reached the syrup used charcoal decolorization degree requirements.

In 1794, a British sugar successful production of charcoal discolored syrup. In 1805, the French use charcoal decolorization first large-scale production and use of sugar beet syrup preparation. 1805-1808, Delessert beet wine of success in using charcoal bleaching. In 1815, most of the sugar industry have switched to a granular bone char as a bleaching agent.

1822, Bussy showed that the effect of active carbon in addition to the inherent properties of the raw material, finished products also depends on thermal processing and particle size. He showed that the high temperature carbonization or too long, reducing the adsorption properties and porosity, although he had no way to measure this factor. This is the first record thermal and chemical processes of activated carbon production.

In 1841, before the heating 斯加登 carbon regeneration of bone systematic use hydrochloric acid. This effectively eliminates the absorption of carbon mineral salts. He also introduced the first continuous kiln production process as well as carbon regeneration of bone in Germany.

In 1854, the House introduced successfully applied to the London sewer system filter to remove impurities in the gas vapor and carbon. In 1862, Lipscombe prepared using carbon purify drinking water. In 1865, a hunter found the use of coconut shell charcoal as raw material with good gas adsorption performance. 1881, Kayser first use 'adsorbed' is a word to describe the carbon absorbed by the gas.

In 1901, Raphael von Ostrejko invention, a metal chloride carbonized botanical raw materials or reaction with carbon dioxide or water vapor and charcoal carbonized material, and has made the British and German patent. In 1911, a factory in Austria to produce activated carbon, the trade name Eponit. 1914-1918, poisonous gas into the First World War battlefield, granular activated carbon as an adsorbent to obtain large-scale mass production of gas masks for military purposes.

18 years after 1918, the development of large-scale wartime tightly controlled production of activated carbon resulting in postwar commercial production and application of activated carbon. New materials in the manufacture of activated carbon Europe has made great progress. Coconut, almond shells zinc chloride to produce activated carbon with high mechanical properties and adsorption capacity of gases and vapors. 1935-1940, the production of activated carbon in Czechoslovakia activated by zinc chloride sawdust for recovering volatile solvents and cleaning benzene gas.

 

 

 
Activation Method

The main activation method:

1. After charcoal, shell charcoal, coconut shell charcoal, coal and other raw materials by granulation, in 1000 ℃ under with water vapor, carbon dioxide, activated gas activation method.

2. The material was dried after impregnation with zinc chloride solution, mixed, at 500 ~ 700 ℃ heating, carbonization or activation method called chemical activation.

Activated carbon is a hydrophobic adsorbent, non-polar substances having selective adsorption characteristics, but also has a catalytic and carbon from the carbon surface functional group itself as the nature of the reaction generated material. Reaction Mechanism about it now there are many unclear.

Activated carbon adsorption weakened, can be regenerated. The activated carbon was placed in the container, leads to a certain pressure of water vapor, and then in the presence of a certain amount of oxygen, heating to 400 ℃, to remove adsorbed species on the surface.

 
Use

Many use of activated carbon is widely used in almost all sectors of the national economy and people's daily lives. Powdered Activated Carbon can be used in liquid bleaching, deodorization refining, water and purification, gas adsorption applied granular carbon, solvent recovery, air purification, cigarette filters, but can also be used vinyl chloride, vinyl acetate synthesis catalyst, a noble metal catalyst carrier.

1. Air Purifier

2. Masks

3. The sewage treatment plant exhaust adsorption

4. Drink Water

5. The water pretreatment plant

6. Pre-treatment wastewater recycling

7. The biological wastewater treatment

8. Toxic Waste Water Treatment

9. E petrochemical sweetening

10. The solvent recovery

11. chemical catalyst carrier

12. canisters

13. Gold Extraction

14. The exhaust gas purifying chemicals storage

15. sugar, alcohol, monosodium glutamate medicine, food refining, bleaching

16. Ethylene desalinated water filler

17. autocatalysts

18. PTA oxidation unit purge gas

19. Human antidote (medical use)
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